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Systems Analysis and Design

The Systems Analysis and Design Phase will commence after the feasibility of the request has been confirmed. In brief, the objectives of this phase are to

(a) investigate and understand the operation of the existing systems;
(b) specify and design the new system; and
(c) detail the implementation requirements of the computerised solution.

The findings and recommendations should be documented in a System Analysis and Design (SA&D) report, which comprises two parts - Management Summary and Technical Specification with the following coverage:

SA&D Management Summary

A. Approval Sought Highlight the major recommendations of the SA&D Study
B. System Objectives State study objectives and intended usage of the proposed system
C. Background Describe background picture and other relevant information of the proposed system.
D. Present Situation Describe the current operations, environment and functions of the system under study.
E. Problem / Improvement Areas Describe problems encountered or anticipated and improvement areas identified.
F. Proposed System Describe in sufficient details the proposed system and define the scope of the subsequent implemented system.
G. Resource Implications Estimate with sufficient details the resources requirements and other implications of the proposed system.
H. Costs Estimate with sufficient details the non-recurrent and recurrent costs of the proposed system.
I. Benefits Estimate tangible and intangible benefits of the proposed system. Realisable benefits, such as reduction in expenditures, increases in revenue, and staff savings resulting from deletion of posts, should be expressed in financial terms. Where notional or intangible benefits are quoted, the study should include appropriate productivity and performance indicators for measuring these improvements subsequently.
J. Cost-benefits Analysis Evaluate the cost effectiveness of the proposed system with indications of the funding requirements and timing for realisation of the identified benefits.
K. Implementation Plan State the system constraints and inherent risks, suggest the most appropriate implementation approach and schedule an implementation plan.
L. Recommendations Make study recommendations and propose the way forward.

SA&D Technical Specification

1. Current Environment Description
  • Current System Description identifies all the related current system information including current system settings and configurations.
  • Current Business Model specifies the current business activities model.
  • Current Problem and Issues specifies the current problems and issues encountered by the key users.
  • Information captured in CED should be purely on the existing environment; any information/activities related to the future system should be performed at later stages.
2. Requirements Specification
  • User Requirements Document (URD) consists of Future Business Process, Functional Requirements and Non-functional Requirements.
  • Technical Requirements supplements the Non-functional Requirements and is not raised by the Business Analyst, but from the IT project team.
3. System Specification
  • Functional Specification describes the system’s behaviours under various conditions as completely as necessary.
  • Architecture Design specifies the architecture of different system components and their interfaces to establish the framework of the detailed design of the system.
  • System Design includes detailed design of various components of the system and the working relationships, to the extent that the design is sufficiently complete to begin system development.
4. Technical System Option
  • Technical System Architecture defines the standard hardware and hosting platforms, network architecture, as well as storage architecture of the business solution.
  • Sizing Model specifies the sizing information of the required system, to form a basis for deriving configuration of the system for costing purposes at later stages.
  • Cost/Benefit Evaluation documents the evaluation in terms of cost effectiveness between the recommended system option and the proposed system option(s).
  • Impact Analysis identifies what and how the proposed system impacts the users and B/Ds.
  • Implementation Plan describes the implementation approach that will be adopted and the implementation timeline.